Blood   Group  of  IUI-D  Born Child

Blood group of IUI-D born child is also determined  genetically  as it happen in normally born child.  In most of the case ABO Rh blood type is calculated &  predicted according to child blood type calculator.   Occasionally  Blood Group of IUI-D  born child  is being influenced by  some specific factors.  These  factors  affect  in  a drastic and exotic way.  And ultimately it results unpredicted blood group  of IUI-D born child.

(IUI-D  = Intra  uterine Insemination by donor sperm)    http://frozencell.org/products/frozen_semen_sample/premium.html

We are going to elaborate this topic under six headings.

  1. Brief History related to  human blood group

  2. Child blood type calculator.

  3. Factors influencing blood group of child.

  4. How IUI–D can affect the blood group of child.

  5. Discussion

  6. Conclusion

1- Brief  history related to  Human Blood Group.

  • The ABO blood types  discovered by  Karl  Landsteiner in 1901.

  • The genes  (responsible for blood group) is located on the long arm of the  ninth chromosome.

  • The ABO blood group evolved approx  20 million years ago.  But scientists still don’t understand the purpose of different blood type  in human being.

2-  Child  Blood type Calculator.

  • In usual case Baby’s blood group is  determined by the mother and the father’s blood group. The two important blood group  in humans are the ABO and the Rh systems.  Mother or father may be  A, B, O or AB  and  all four blood may be Rh +ve   or Rh –ve.

  • The blood group are named according to presence or absence of   A & B  antigen.  These antigen  remain  attached on the surface of Red Blood Cell (RBC). In blood group A,  antigen A is  on the surface of RBC.  Blood group B,  antigen B is on the surface of RBC.  And blood group AB,  both antigen A & B are on the surface of RBC. While blood group O does not have any antigen on surface of RBC.

  • Given Child  Blood  Group Calculator ( ABO Type)  is  a very  simple  chart to  predict  blood group of a child .

 

  • In the same way  below given chart is very effective in predicting  Rh system of blood group.

  • The above given both the charts  predict the blood group of a child which  will be almost  correct.  But there are conditions , of course rare,   where the child may have a different blood group.

Sometime (rather rarely) the blood group of  child are not as per expectation. To say  even   parents  with blood group  AB  may  have child  with blood group O.

3.–   Factors influencing blood group of child.

  • Bombay Blood Group  —  Parent with Bombay blood group can effectively  give birth  to a child with  unpredictable  blood group.   Like  a child with blood group O can be born  by parent of any blood group even AB + AB parent. (Bombay blood group is relatively common in Indian).

  • Cis-AB —  Cis-AB is another rare variant, in which both   genes of a parent  transmitted together in egg or ovum. Therefore  the child will have two set of DNA.    May be one from father side  AB  blood group and other  from mother side (may be) A, B or O .  This type of child will express as AB during blood group determination.  But they can transmit AB, A, B,or O gene to their child.(more common in Koreans  & Japanese).

  • Chimera –  The  person “chimera “ is having two set of cells . In other word  he / she has two set of DNA.   How a chimera develop?  During early stage of  fertilization two eggs fertilized  with different set of DNA.  Both the zygote  fuse  together and in most of the case  develop like a normal person. They have two set of cells.  Sometime they present like different colored  eye in one person,  patchy skin , in the same way chimera may produce sperm/ovum  from two totally different set of cells.

  • Mutation – Although very  rare,   but theoretically possible.  A child can get  any kind of blood type if you consider the effect of mutations.    By the time a baby is born,  the baby  have on average 100 or so new mutations.  It is worth to consider here that  the difference  between  A, B  and O  blood type  are very small.  Therefore it is likely that a small  change can result into  O mother  to produce  an  A or B  egg.  In the same way an  O father  can make an  A or B  sperm.

  • In this evolutionary world  this list is not going  to end here.  With time more new factors  will   come up,   which can change or affect the  blood group of child.

 4. –  How IUI–D can affect the blood group of child.

Here  my aim is  to discuss how the above mentioned  factors  as well as other factors affect the  blood group of  IUI–D born child.

  1. All  factors mentioned above influence  the   blood   group  of  IUI-D  born child. There is no change in the rate.  Whether the child is normal born or ART / IUI-D born.

  2. Most of the  Sperm bank,  who provide  frozen semen sample  for IUI-D,  are not performing test  for  Bombay  blood group,  Cis – AB or  Chimera for their donors.

  3. Even  WHO  or any other organization are not recommending such  specific test like Bombay blood group, Cis-AB, Chimerism,  etc  to sperm bank  for their sperm donors.

  4. Mutational factor is beyond control  & can not diagnosed  or controlled.

  5. I don’t disagree that there may be mistake from sperm bank / infertility clinic –  manually ,  documentary   or clerical.

  6. We should not forget the possibility that the lady may have physical contact with third person during the treatment by IUI- D, which can make her pregnant.

Discussion  —-

In this discussion we will not included the effect of different  blood group in  blood transfusion or  organ transplant.

At this point  it should be clear that  these condition / exception , where child blood group is misleading, is very rare  and also not easy to test by simple means.  Therefore it is best approach to find out,  whether the child belongs to you, is different type of DNA test.  Only after conducting a proper DNA test or series of DNA test  you should consider about exotic like mutation , chimarism , etc.

An international team of researchers announced in the journal Nature Biotechnology an inexpensive and efficient way to convert types A, B, and AB blood into type O.  They made it possible by using glycosidase enzymes from specific bacteria to strip the blood group antigens from red blood cells.  Therefore in future it may be possible to  change his or her blood group.

Conclusion  —-

Sometime it may happen that the  child is born with unmatched blood group from his / her parent.  The whole  responsibility may not go to infertility clinic, treating doctor or sperm bank.

In the same way even the blood group of child may not match with the  blood group  of donor  sample. At this point of discussion I l to remind that donors of sperm bank are not tested for Bombay blood group, Cis – AB or Chimarism.  Moreover we should not forget about mutation too.

Also it should be the duty of geneticist /a genetic counselor or consultant to explain all possibility related to  different blood group of a child.  As well as final diagnosis regarding the blood group of child should depend upon a series of DNA test,  not merely  base on blood group of parent.

Proper detection of parent-ship with an appropriate approach and counseling is  important  not only from medical point of view, but it is also going to serve the society by saving a confused family.

Reference  —   

  1. D. Barry Starr,  The Tech, Museum of innovation
  2. Natalie Dye
  3. Mom Junction
  4. Wikipedia

37 thoughts on “Blood  Group of  IUI-D  Born Child

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