Human semen freezing is an almost six-decade-old technique with multiple up-gradations. Even after being such an old technique still, Semen Freezing has many pitfalls. We will focus on the issue; how semen vitrification can fix most freeze-thaw pitfalls?
Semen Freezing is not common only in human beings. Rather it is a much more popular and method of choice in livestock reproduction. It is also being used for the research purposes of different species. Semen freezing has a proven role in the research and maintenance of endangered species. Now it is getting popular in humans with additional indications, like semen freezing prior to cancer treatment. Semen freeze-thaw pitfalls seems one of the biggest hurdle in infertility industry.
The most common pitfalls with conventional semen freeze-thaw are:
A)Semen freeze-thaw pitfalls making it a time taking process.
Present semen freezing is a time taking process. Merely freezing of semen or sperm by conventional method takes 60 to 120 minutes of time. Vitrification of semen is adequately quick and takes only 30 to 40 minutes.
B) It demands costly equipment.
Programmable freezer is usually a prerequisite for conventional semen freezing. It is a costly equipment. For a start up or in a underdeveloped country it is not practical and commercially viable to own such a costly equipment. Manual freezing of semen is possible but it does not yield a good outcome. Moreover there is variation in result in manual freezing.
C)It requires expertise.
Expertise and training are mandatory to operate a programmable freezer. Rest part of sperm storage, liquid nitrogen maintenance is a relatively easy job.
D)Use of H.S.A. & animal component is almost mandatory in conventional semen freezing. Which may transmit viruses & prions.
In ongoing conventional semen freezing use of Human Serum albumin (H.S.A.) or other animal components like egg yolk or F.B.S, B.S.A. is an integral part freezing medium. In our newly developed Vitri Media (for semen vitrification) any animal component is not required. Therefore with semen vitrification, there is no scope of virus or prion transmission. Even there is no risk of unknown & emerging viruses.
E)H.S.A. may not be acceptable on humanity or religious ground.
A new trend noted in preset pandemic Covid-19. In many places, a group of people is opposing vaccination. The given reason was; the vaccine has different animal components. This was not acceptable on religious grounds. But ridiculously humans are happily ready to take human protein for any use. Even when it can be avoided. Anyway, it proves that religion is still above everything including humanity.
F)Thawing is relatively quicker in the case of vitrified semen.
Thawing in boiling water gives good results with vitrified semen. It required 45-50 seconds in boiling water followed by incubation at 32 degrees C for 40 minutes. Which is certainly faster than conventional freeze-thaw protocol.
Vitrification of embryo & ova is a worldwide accepted technology with better outcomes. Multiple trials on semen vitrification are in process. How semen vitrification can fix most of the freeze-thaw pitfalls; appears a significant aspect to make infertility management convenient. Many researchers became successful even. But still, the outcome in terms of pregnancy and other complications has to be monitored. Moreover on the cellular level vitrification of sperm seems promising. As vitrification results in minimum or zero ice crystal formation.
On a theoretical and hypothetical basis, the vitrification of semen looks very encouraging. It appears that it can fix most of the freeze-thaw pitfalls. Most important human semen can be frozen without using H.S.A. by process of vitrification. Since it is a simple procedure, semen freezing by vitrification can be performed even in developed or under-developed nations.
Conflict of interest
We did not receive any conflict on this study. Rather we are waiting for conflict & critics. In our opinion conflict & critics are strongest tool to improve any innovation. Therefore we are always open to discussion and live demonstration.
The whole study conducted by our own resources. We did not receive any grant or assistance from any organization.